There are not many things worse than a brutal crime…except maybe a brutal crime that has yet to be solved. Of course, while not all of the crimes on this list would be classified as brutal, they are all equally unsolved. From the violent murders of Jack the Ripper to the largest diamond heist in history, millions of dollars and man hours have gone into trying to solve them. Here are some of the most frustrating unsolved crimes ever.

The Black Dahlia

This is a moniker given to a 22-year old aspiring starlet named Elizabeth Short, due to her dark hair and wardrobe, who was the victim of a gruesome and much-publicized murder. Her body was found mutilated, sliced with surgical precision and drained of blood on January 15, 1947 in Leimert Park, Los Angeles, California. The oldest unsolved case in LA was the subject of widespread speculations that led to a number of suspects but no convictions.

The Taman Shud Case

This unsolved case that received world wide attention involved an unidentified man that was found dead on the morning of December 1, 1948 on Somertonebeach in Adelaide, South Australia. Despite the best efforts of numerous agencies and governments around the world the man was never identified and the only clue was a piece of scrap paper in his pocket that had two words written on it from the final page of the Rubaiyat: “taman shud”, which translates to “ended”.

Boy in the Box

This was a name given to an unidentified murdered boy, about 4 to 6 years old, whose naked body was found in a cardboard box on the edge of the Susquehanna Road in Northeast Philadelphia on February 25, 1957. He had numerous bruises on his entire body and in spite of being featured on a television series such as “America’s Most Wanted,” his identity remains unknown.

Whitechapel Killings

Possibly one of the most famous unsolved crimes ever, in 1888 there were eleven brutal murders committed in the Whitechapel District of London’s east end. All of the victims were prostitutes murdered by the same killer who became known as “Jack the Ripper” and who’s identity has never been uncovered.

Andrew and Abby Borden

The murder of husband and wife Andrew and Abby Borden on August 4, 1892 attracted media attention not only due to their affluence in Fall River, Massachusetts, but also for the fact that the suspect who was tried and acquitted was a family member named Lizzie Borden. Andrew sustained 11 blows from an axe on his head while taking a nap on the couch, while Abby, who died an hour or so before him, had suffered 18 or 19 blows. Speculations about properties, strained relationships, and food poisoning abounded.

The Axeman of New Orleans

The feared “boogeyman,” who created a mass hysteria in New Orleans around the turn of the 20th century, first appeared on May 23, 1918 when a local grocer named Joseph Maggio and his wife were found butchered in their sleep with an axe which was found in the room still covered with the couple’s blood. The entryway was a chiseled panel in the rear door and the only clue to the murder, as no valuables were taken, was a message written in chalk near the couple’s home. The Axeman killed at least 8 more people until it stopped and the killer was never found.

The Atlas Vampire Case

In 1932 in Stockholm, Sweden, an unnamed 32-year-old prostitute was found dead approximately 48 hours after her murder. Though murders of prostitute weren’t that rare at the time, the woman who had been killed by a crushing blow to the skull had attracted significant media attention as it appeared in the autopsy note that the killer had apparently been drinking the woman’s blood. Due to the absence of forensic technology and the lack of witnesses, this spine-chilling mystery remained unsolved.

Jack the Stripper

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Copycat of “Jack the Ripper,” this serial killer was nicknamed “Jack the Stripper” for the killings of eight prostitutes between 1964 and 1965 whose bodies were dumped in the River Thames. Though a young man who committed suicide was implicated in the murder, there was no solid evidence to link him to the crimes and just like the crimes of Jack the Ripper, the Stripper’s reign of panic seem to cease on its own.

The Zodiac Killings

These bizarre and notorious killings are one of the greatest unsolved mysteries of all time, second only to the top contender Jack the Ripper. The ‘Zodiac Killer,’ as the assailant came to be known, was involved in the killings around the San Francisco area from December 1968 to October 1969, though he may have slain others before and after this as well. He had killed seven people, four men and three women and taunted the police with coded, clue-laden messages that he sent out to San Francisco newspapers for over a decade. Although over 2,500 suspects were investigated by the police, it was never officially solved and still remains open until today.

D.B. Cooper

D.B. Cooper was just a media epithet given to an unidentified passenger who hijacked Northwest Orient Airlines Flight 305 from Portland, Oregon to Seattle, Washington on November 24, 1971 and demanded a ransom of $200,000 that he received at the Seattle airport. He demanded the pilot to fly back to Oregon and en route opened the rear door and parachuted into the dark with 21 lbs of $20 bills strapped to his body. Neither he nor the money was ever found, except for $5,580 that was found years later at the Columbia River. This is the only unsolved airplane hijacking in American aviation history.

Olof Palme

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Swedish politician and a prime minister from 1982 to 1986, Olof Palme was known for his referendum to remove all nuclear reactors from Sweden. When elected as prime minister, he tried to restore socialist economic polices and had been very outspoken on his stance in European security. He was assassinated on February 28, 1986 while walking home with his wife after a visit to the cinema. Though a number of conspiracy theories had been proposed on the motive of the murder, the killer was not found.

Gardner Museum

The Gardner Museum, named after Isabella Stewart Gardner experienced the world’s biggest art heist ever on St. Patrick’s Day in 1990. Two men, who posed as policemen sent to purportedly investigate something stole 13 paintings worth an estimated $300 million. The artworks, which were hacked from their frames, were apparently uninsured and in spite of a $5 million reward, they were never found.

Tupac Shakur, Biggie Smalls

Tupac Shakur, listed as one of the most successful gangsta rappers ever, was killed in a drive-by shooting a few hours away after the Mike Tyson-Bruce Sheldon match in September 1996 that he attended with his record producer Suge Knight in Las Vegas. He died from injuries six days later and six months later, his rival Biggie Smalls, 24, was also gunned down in Los Angeles. Rumors have it that the two former friends became entangled in hip-hop’s East Coast vs. West Coast rivalry when Shakur switched teams. Investigations made by the Los Angeles Times suggested that it was Smalls who paid the Southside Crips to gun down Shakur. Meanwhile, a documentarian named Nick Broomfield, implicated Suge Knight, who allegedly got rid of Smalls to confuse authorities. Whatever the truth is, no one knows as both cases remains open.

JonBenét Ramsey

Six-year-old beauty queen of a wealthy Boulder, Colorado executive was found bludgeoned and strangled to death in the basement of her family home around Christmas of 1996.  Clashes between the family and the police and district attorney fed the media frenzy while public speculations centered on her parents John and Patsy Ramsey. They appeared in media channels for years defending their innocence and demanded justice for their daughter, until they were cleared from any involvement in 2008 through the newly-discovered DNA evidence.  Who the real culprit was, however, remains a mystery.

Amber Hagerman

Amber Hagerman, 9, and her little brother Ricky, 5, were pedaling their bikes to an abandoned grocery store on the afternoon of January 13, 1996. Ricky went home alone, and an eyewitness, a 78-year old retiree, accounted that Amber was biking alone when a man in a dark pickup grabbed her and pulled her into the vehicle. He contacted the police, who did a massive search along with some volunteers in the area. She was found four days later on a creek bed, dead and sexually assaulted for the two days she had been kept alive. No suspects had been found but this led to the start of the now well known Amber Alert, an international child abduction alert bulletin.

The Amsterdam Diamond Heist

This is not as disturbing as some of the other crimes, but what is crazy about this heist is the fact that it was pulled off in broad daylight before multiple witnesses. Two men disguised as KLM employees rode a stolen car from the cargo terminal of Amsterdam Schipol Airport and hijacked a truck carrying uncut diamonds estimated at US $118 million bound for Antwerp. The police hinted at an inside job though they have yet to solve the case.

Alexander Litvinenko

You like spy stories, this will definitely captivate you. A former officer of the Russian Federal Security Officer, FSB and KGB, Alexander Litvinenko had received political asylum in the United Kingdom. However, on November 1, 2006, he became the first person ever to be poisoned with polonium. He died a few days later and speculations on who could inflict such merciless murder became rampant though no one was charged. The mystery only fanned the fear and mass hysteria regarding the use of biological and chemical weapons.

The Salish Sea Foot Mystery

When several detached feet washed up on the shores of the Salish Sea in British Columbia, some officials didn’t think it too odd as they may have come from boating accidents or plane crashes. What was strange about these feet, however, was the fact that they kept washing up and every single one of them had running shoes on. Speculations range from suicides to tsunami victims but as of yet, there has been no official conclusion.